Further inspection showed that the comb on the floor was most likely a mis-attached comb that fell from a top-bar. The bees weren’t exactly expanding on it but they weren’t removing it either, it was time to give them some help. Doing so was like playing a game of Operation but it went very smoothly and the bees were very docile even though I was digging pretty deep in their hive.
Not much in this wreck of a comb but the bees were still tending to some brood in there.
Going at it very carefully.
I’ll leave them to clean the remaining pieces.
Eventually one of the back bars that I had set aside was abandoned of all bees so… I just took it! Not necessarily the best thing to do but I was very eager to taste what the bees were up to. And it was delicious.
To sweet nectar.
It tasted very much like a mix between sap & honey, super good.
I inspected my hive today and it’s doing great. I drilled a few holes in the part that is currently uninhabited to give the bees some air. I did it early in the morning to lock them inside for the drilling, they took it really well and didn’t care a bit about the ruckus, even after I released them. I continued on merrily with the inspection as if nothing happened.
A few holes for aeration in the middle of the hive, I stapled netting to prevent robbing and to make sure they don’t become an entrance.
Today’s surprise though, came with the presence of comb on the floor. I’m not sure if this fell from one of the top bars but I doubt it. I don’t know what to do with it right now, I’ll monitor the situation and decide later whether to remove it or not.
Because we don’t necessarily want the home lens to be the default one in Unity, and unlike other lenses it is hardcoded left & right. Here’s a little trick that will let you pick a different lens as the default for when you click on Dash.
edit the file: /usr/share/unity-2d/shell/dash/Dash.qml
replace line 79 “onDashActivateHome: activateHome()” by “onDashActivateHome: activateLens(X)” where X is the index of the lens you want to load (count from left to right starting from 0).
You’ll want to restart Unity for this to take effect.
So here we are, 2012 and physical media are going away really fast. We won’t even talk about CDs which have been relegated to the role of plastic dust collectors; hard drives even are being abstracted by a myriad of cloud based solutions. Their purpose is shifting towards a container for the OS and nothing else. Filesystems & their hierarchies become hidden in a bid to remove any need to organize files, rather, you are supposed to throw it all up in the cloud and search on metadata.
While moving away from physical media is convenient and inevitable, I like the hierarchical organization that directories provide. What’s more intuitive than a labeled container with stuff in it?
How can we detach our hard drives from their physical shells, move them around in an omnipresent cloud and keep them secure?
By creating a file, attaching it to loopback & creating an encrypted partition in it!
Here’s how to do it
- Create a file that will be your soft hard drive with:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/ffs bs=1024 count=524288
This will create a 512MB file (524288/1024).
- Make sure that the loopback device #0 is free:
You should see something telling you that there is “No such device or address”.
- Attach the soft hard drive to the loopback device:
sudo losetup /dev/loop0 /tmp/ffs
- And then make sure it was indeed attached by re-running:
- Create an encrypted partition on your attached soft hard drive:
sudo cryptsetup --verify-passphrase luksFormat /dev/loop0 -c aes -s 256 -h sha256
- Open your encrypted partition:
sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/loop0 ffs
- Create a filesystem in it:
sudo mkfs.ext3 -m 1 /dev/mapper/ffs
- And mount it like a regular disk:
sudo mount /dev/mapper/ffs /mnt
- When you are done using your encrypted soft hard drive you will want to umount it:
sudo umount /mnt
- Close it:
sudo cryptsetup luksClose ffs
- Detach it from loopback:
losetup -d /dev/loop0
These steps can be automated of course. As a quick reminder, using the drive goes “loopback attach -> crypt open -> mount” and when you’re done it’s “umount -> crypt close -> loopback detach”.
That’s it! media-less & secure storage.
Tested on: Ubuntu 12.04 64b
- Download & extract with “tar zxvf crackzor_1.0.tar.gz”
- Make sure you have the right packages in place
sudo apt-get install build-essential libopenmpi-dev openmpi-bin libssl-dev
- Compile with
mpicc -O3 crackzor.c -o crackzor -lm -lssl -lcrypto
- Create a file called “machines” containing a newline separated list of every machine that are in your cluster, for example:
machine00.domain.com machine01.domain.com machine02.domain.com machine03.domain.com machine04.domain.com
- Open MPI uses SSH for communication between nodes, as such, you need to make sure that the node you will be launching crakzor from is able to do SSH key based authentication to all the other nodes in the cluster. For my example above, if machine00 is where you will be working from, you will want to
where X E [0,4] (yes, machine00 needs to be able to SSH to itself).
- You now need to disseminate your executable across all the machines that will be running it:
for machine in `cat machines`; do scp crackzor $machine:~; done
Pro-tip: having network storage attached to all the machines makes this step unnecessary.
- Run with:
mpirun -npernode Y -machinefile machines crackzor fbade9e36a3f36d3d676c1b808451dd7 abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzy 1 1
where Y is the number of cores each machine in your cluster has. If you are running this on machines with 2 CPUs with 8 cores each, Y = 8 * 2 = 16.
Tested on Ubuntu 10.04 64b / Ubuntu 12.04 64b / Ubuntu 14.04 64b
mpirun -npernode 16 -machinefile machines ./crackzor 7ca4793dcdff46ecda38e48d65b6c913 abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzyABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1 7
This is what “htop” looks like with a bunch of processes spawned & hammering every core:
For the purpose of testing crackzor, we give it the md5 hash of an 8 character word and tell it to bruteforce it up to 7 characters. This insures that we will compute every permutation up to 7 character longs. The characters I asked it to permute are “abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxzyABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ”, our sample space size is thus 52^7 + 52^6 + 52^5 + 52^4 + 52^3 + 52^2 + 52^1 = 1,048,229,971,204.
Here is the raw data, and here it is graphed:
- approaching the machine’s actual number of cores on the Dell blades leave little room for linear expansion
- which is emphasized in a multiuser environment where other users run other computation
- the EC2 bar flattens the graph a bit but I still wanted to show how it compares
Ideally I would run through a few iterations of EC2 to observe its progression but hey, it’s expensive :).
- Right now, the only hashing algorithm supported by crackzor is MD5. It can very easily be expanded upon.
- I also may not be using the fastest MD5 method with the fastest call, distribution is what I’m interested in.
- Distributing password cracking among multiple machines is throwing linear resources to an exponential problem!
Well, this is it. After much prep work I have finally released my first package of bees in the hive. Everything did not go according to plan, the candy separating the queen from the rest of the colony had already been eaten. As a result the queen did not get a chance to be released by the workers. I managed to keep her in there while I was releasing the remaining 3lbs of bees. Things went well other than this and I am hopeful that she’ll be accepted by the others as they had been traveling together for a while. I’ll try and locate her in a couple of days and if I can’t find her, I will rush order another queen. It’s nice that I get another shot if needed.
All the extensive information I gathered online (various blogs, Youtube videos) prepared me pretty well for what to do. Nothing however can prepare you for the experience of handling a liquid-like swarm of buzzing bees. It was very impressive & I was definitely glad I got a full suit. Not that they were even really pissed at me for shaking them in their new hive. But it felt like a wrong move could change everything for the worse very fast. I eventually learned to trust my suit.
I went back to install an electric fence with a friend the next morning (bears & skunks are an issue in the area), no buzzing was to be heard. Nothing at all, I opened a couple of bars and couldn’t see a thing. Finally I found them on a few bars and disturbing them made the whole swarm start the day. It was super cool to see them do their thing.
The hive in its final location, with a new roof & fenced in to withstand the local wildlife
The hive actually faces an orchard which is starting to bloom, perfect timing for some pollination help. I intend on taking more pictures in a few days.